Repel's water-based formula is safe to use on all materials like suede, nubuck, leather, nylon and canvas. It’s basically a force field for shoes. The material should be clean and dry prior to application. Hold bottle upright 6' to 8” from shoe, spray evenly covering the entire area of the shoe. Do not oversaturate. Use a cloth to dab and soak up any excess product. Allow to completely dry/cure for 24 hours or more. After the first coat has dried, repeat steps and apply a second coat. Before exposing to liquid, make sure shoes have completely dried. Tip: The longer you allow Repel to cure, the stronger the repellency.